Socioeconomic of the Middle Class :How to Balance the Socioeconomic System
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Item difficulty b ranged from Item discrimination a ranged from 0. We adopted the Parent—child Relationship Scale Hair et al. The results showed that the scale had a one-dimensional structure. Eight indexes had high loading on one factor and explained Then, we performed confirmatory factor analysis CFA with the other half of the participants. The factor loadings of every item were between 0. We adopted the Learning Motivation Scale Cheng et al.
This scale contains four dimensions: challenge, engagement, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation. CFA with the other half of the participants showed that the factor loadings of every item were between 0. We adopted a paper-pencil test and took the class as a group. Each participant received a pack of test questions, which included two parts of the reading test a total of 26 questions and a background questionnaire.
The time allotted for the test was divided into two periods with a break between them. We used a balancing technique: half of the participants did the reading test first, and the other half did the background questionnaires first. The participants were allocated to these conditions randomly. First, we used the expectation—maximization algorithm to handle missing data in SPSS.
Then, we tested hypothetical models using path analysis in Mplus with maximum likelihood estimation. The results of the descriptive statistics are shown in Table 2. We can see that family SES, the parent—child relationship, and learning motivation were all positively correlated with reading ability. The reading scores of males were significantly lower than those of females. Thus, we controlled for the gender factor in the following model test to decrease the spurious effect. Here, we conducted an independent-samples T test to compare the mean differences between students from Beijing and students from Guangzhou on all variables.
According to the test method of the moderated mediation model Baron and Kenny, ; Wen et al. The model Model 1 was a saturated model. Its fit was acceptable in a simple regression model without considering latent variables. The R 2 of reading ability was 0. Learning motivation played a moderating role between SES and reading ability. Second, based on Model 1, we tested the moderation effect of learning motivation on the first stage i.
The R 2 of the parent—child relationship was 0. The results indicated that learning motivation did not have a moderation effect between SES and reading ability on the first stage or the second stage. Finally, based on Model 2, we removed the interaction effect of learning motivation on the first stage and the second stage from the model. That is, we considered only the moderation effect of learning motivation on the direct effect. The mediation effect of the parent—child relationship was 0. The direct effects of SES on reading ability differed according to the change in the learning motivation level.
The results of simple slope test Dearing and Hamilton, showed that the slope of high motivation was higher than that for low motivation Figure 1. These findings revealed that the effect of SES on reading ability decreased as learning motivation increased. Learning motivation as a moderator of the direct relationship between SES and reading ability. Learning motivation is the moderating variable of relationship between SES and reading ability. The relationship between family SES and academic performance has always been an important issue in sociology, pedagogy, and psychology.
With social and economic development and the improvement of research methods, more and more research has begun to pay attention to the mediator and moderator variables between SES and academic performance Bradley and Corwyn, ; Sirin, The potential advantages of utilizing IRT analysis in item and scale development include greater flexibility in selecting items from an existing item bank that can be tailored to the objectives of a particular research investigation Fraley et al.
For the measuring method of SES, this study kept to the international conventions while simultaneously making the measurement culturally appropriate. The existing research about the relationship between SES and academic achievement has not reached an agreement, and it contains considerable controversy. Studies have measured SES by different methods, and the effect factors of academic achievement are quite complicated; thus, it is not strange that different studies can draw different or even opposite conclusions.
The present study found that the correlation coefficient of SES and reading ability was 0. We also found that the direct effect of SES on reading ability occupied a larger percentage of the total effect than the indirect effect.
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It is thus clear that SES has an effect on reading ability. There is a relation between poverty and low SES for a range of negative child outcomes, including low IQ, educational attainment and achievement, and increased social—emotional problems. However, this relation is quite complex because the different components of SES impact reading ability in different ways Bradley and Corwyn, Parental education is an important index of SES, and it is indeed an important and significant unique predictor of child educational achievement Duncan and Brooks-Gunn, ; Davis-Kean, With regard to occupation, low occupation status or prestige generally indicates heavy physical labor, long working hours, low wages, and unstable working opportunities with a relatively high probability of being laid off.
With regard to income, families with low income may not be able to provide necessary living goods such as a house, a study area, or a computer and other supplements such as extracurricular books, newspapers, and magazines for children. Income is logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Research found that among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in brain surface area, whereas among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area.
These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting executive functions, language, and reading Noble et al. In other words, income is most strongly related to brain structure and reading among the most disadvantaged children. This study showed that family SES influenced reading ability not only directly but also indirectly through the parent—child relationship. Within this process, the parent—child relationship is an important form of externalized SES. Compared to parents with low education levels, those with high education levels provide more assistance and tutorship directly, and more importantly, they can provide assistance indirectly through a better parent—child relationship.
They can do so by presenting a positive attitude and expressing educational expectations toward their children. Generally, parents with higher education levels know more about proper parenting styles and have more approaches for addressing difficulties in their relationships with their children. With regard to the indirect effect of occupation and income on reading ability, parents with low SES often have more negative emotions, such as dissatisfaction and unhappiness, and experience more financial pressure.
In such circumstances, they are more likely to take their anger out on their children and to discipline them by maltreatment in their rearing methods. As a result, children may feel aggrieved and dissatisfied, and their academic achievement may be affected. The mediation effect of the parent—child relationship tells us that parents should not hold the simple view that providing sufficient material conditions for their children is enough for improving their academic performance.
By contrast, a positive parent—child relationship and family atmosphere should also be built based on material conditions and educational investment. The moderating effect of learning motivation revealed the complexity of the effect of SES on reading ability. Although the effect of SES on academic achievement was confirmed, in the real world, we can find examples of children in low SES families who achieve academic success and children in high SES families who fail in their academic performance.
The reason for this phenomenon is that initiative factors such as learning motivation moderate the effect of SES on academic achievement. Children in low SES families or with undesirable parent—child relationships may lack opportunities to obtain material resources, and they may be faced with stressful life events as well as a passive family atmosphere.
If they have strong learning motivation, they may overcome these unfavorable effects through active study attitudes and good learning habits. Thus, learning motivation can enhance the ability of children to cope with the adversity caused by low SES. As for children with high SES, although they may have more study resources or better academic support, they may face academic failure if their learning motivation is low.
The results of this study and those of Kim et al. Kim et al. Wealthier children were more likely than poorer children to lack motivation. Considering the direct effect of SES on reading ability, the government should provide better conditions for promoting the academic success of students by introducing a series of measures such as increasing the investment in less developed areas, remitting the tuition of destitute families, and offering scholarships for specific families.
In the light of the indirect effect of SES on reading ability through the parent—child relationship, parents should pay more attention to family education. The education, occupation and income of parents cannot be changed in a short time, but education attitude and parent—child relationships are comparatively easy to change. School education and family education can arouse and maintain the learning motivation of children and encourage them to overcome the effects of harmful factors.
However, we cannot understand this result in a simple and absolute way. First, we analyzed data only at the individual level, but the relation between SES and reading ability may vary based on higher level variables such as classes and schools. Second, all variables in this study were analyzed as observed variables. The results may be more accurate if potential variables were used in considering the measurement error. Finally, this is a cross-sectional study that cannot draw any conclusions about cause and effect.
In future research, a longitudinal study may provide stronger evidence on this problem. To sum up, continued research should further refine the variables based on previous work and combine new statistical methods such as hierarchical linear modeling HLM and structural equation modeling SEM. QC contributed to developing the theoretical framework, data analysis, organization, and overall writing of the manuscript.
LM contributed to developing the theoretical framework, editing and organization of the paper, as well as the overall design. YK and WG contributed to the design, data analysis, and editing of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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They believe private property becomes useless when it concentrates into centralized, socialized institutions based on private appropriation of revenue until the role of the capitalist becomes redundant. Compare the positives and negatives associated with the use of power and how power operates in society. When a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of the leader. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings.
The use of power need not involve coercion force or the threat of force. Although power can be seen as various forms of constraint on human action, it can also be understood as that which makes action possible, although in a limited scope. Because power operates both relationally and reciprocally, sociologists speak of the balance of power between parties to a relationship. All parties to all relationships have some power. The sociological examination of power concerns itself with discovering and describing the relative strengths—equal or unequal, stable, or subject to periodic change.
Sociologists usually analyze relationships in which the parties have relatively equal or nearly equal power in terms of constraint rather than of power. Compare the two types of prestige — achieved and ascribed, and how prestige is related to power, property and social mobility. A person can earn prestige by his or her own achievements, which is known as achieved status, or they can be placed in the stratification system by their inherited position, which is called ascribed status.
Occupations like physicians or lawyers tend to have more prestige associated with them than occupations like bartender or janitor. Prestige is often related to the other two indicators of social class — property and power. A Supreme Court justice, for example, is usually wealthy, enjoys a great deal of prestige, and exercises significant power.
In some cases, however, a person ranks differently on these indicators, such as funeral directors. Their prestige is fairly low, but most have higher incomes than college professors, who are among the most educated people in America and have high prestige. Prestige is a strong element in social mobility. Oxford University Ceremony : The job of professor is an example of an occupation that has high prestige even though many professors do not earn incomes in the top economic bracket.
Discuss the concept of status inconsistency and how this phenomena can lead to frustration for people. Introduced by the sociologist Gerhard Lenski in the s, status inconsistency theories predict that people whose statuses are inconsistent will be more frustrated and dissatisfied than people with consistent statuses. For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image respect, prestige, etc. All societies have some basis for social stratification, and industrial societies are characterized by multiple dimensions to which some vertical hierarchy may be imputed.
The notion of status inconsistency is simple: It is defined as occupying different vertical positions in two or more hierarchies. Max Weber articulated three major dimensions of stratification in his discussion of class, power, and status. This multifaceted framework provides the background concepts for discussing status inconsistency. Status inconsistency theories predict that people whose status is inconsistent, or higher on one dimension than one another, will be more frustrated and dissatisfied than people with consistent statuses. Gerhard Lenski originally predicted that people suffering from status inconsistency would favor political actions and parties directed against higher status groups.
According to Lenski, the concept can be used to further explain why status groups made up of wealthy minorities who would be presumed conservative tend to be liberal instead.
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Since Lenski coined the term, status inconsistency has remained controversial with limited empirical verification. School Teacher : Teachers are often held in high esteem and exert power over students and in local policy, but they tend to have low incomes and little accumulated wealth. Skip to main content. Stratification, Inequality, and Social Class in the U. Search for:. Social Class Social Class Society is stratified into social classes on the basis of wealth, income, educational attainment, and occupation. Learning Objectives Discuss the discrepancies in the formation of social classes, as identified by various sociologists.
Individuals tend to form relationships with others in their own class, and to consequently acculturate to, or learn the values of behaviors of, their own class. This process strengthens distinctions between classes as each group establishes a unique class culture. Class Culture : A system of beliefs, values, and behaviors that is particular to a socioeconomic group.
Learning Objectives Describe the various forms of property — private, public and collective — and their functions. Key Takeaways Key Points Property goes beyond income as a measure of social class as it reflects the accumulated wealth e. Socialists view private property relations as limiting the potential of productive forces in the economy.
Libertarians believe that private property rights are a requisite for rational and efficient economic calculation. Learning Objectives Compare the positives and negatives associated with the use of power and how power operates in society. Coercion is power taken by force or the threat of force.